Idealism and Naturalism

Idealism

In philosophy, idealism is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.

idealism n 1: (philosophy) the philosophical theory that ideas are the only reality 2: impracticality by virtue of thinking of things in their ideal form rather than as they really are 3: elevated ideals or conduct; the quality of believing that ideals should be pursued [syn: {high-mindedness}, {noble-mindedness}]

116 Moby Thesaurus words for "idealism": Berkeleianism, Geistesgeschichte, Hegelian idea, Hegelianism, Kantian idea, Kantianism, Neoplatonism, Platonic form, Platonic idea, Platonism, absolute idealism, animatism, animism, archetype, aspiration, autism, autistic thinking, bigheartedness, bigness, chivalrousness, chivalry, complex idea, dereism, dereistic thinking, dream, dreamery, elevation, errantry, eternal object, eternal universal, exaltation, exemplar, flight of fancy, form, formal cause, generosity, generousness, great heart, greatheartedness, greatness, greatness of heart, heroism, high goal, high-mindedness, highest category, history of ideas, hylozoism, ideal, ideality, idealization, ideals, ideate, ideatum, idee-force, imaginative exercise, immaterialism, impracticality, innate idea, knight-errantry, knightliness, largeheartedness, liberality, liberalness, loftiness, magnanimity, magnanimousness, materialism, metaphysical idealism, model, monistic idealism, nobility, noble-mindedness, nobleness, noosphere, noumenon, openhandedness, panpsychism, pattern, percept, personalism, play of fancy, princeliness, prototype, psychism, quixotism, quixotry, reaching high, regulative first principle, romance, romanticism, simple idea, solipsism, spiritualism, subjectivism, sublimity, subsistent form, the Absolute, the Absolute Idea, the Self-determined, the realized ideal, transcendent idea, transcendent nonempirical concept, transcendent universal, transcendental, universal, universal concept, universal essence, unpracticalness, unrealism, unreality, upward looking, utopianism, visionariness, wish fulfillment, wish-fulfillment fantasy, wishful thinking

Maya \Ma"ya\ (m[aum]"y[aum]), n. 1. (Hindu Philos.) The name (in Vedantic philosphy) for the doctrine of the unreality of matter, called, in English, {idealism}; hence, nothingness; vanity; illusion. [1913 Webster] 2. (Hindu Philos.) the Hindu goddess personifying the power that creates phenomena. --[RHUD] [PJC] 3. (Hindu Philos.) the power to produce illusions. --[RHUD] [PJC]

Idealism \I*de"al*ism\, n. [Cf. F. id['e]alisme.] 1. The quality or state of being ideal. [1913 Webster] 2. Conception of the ideal; imagery. [1913 Webster] 3. (Philos.) The system or theory that denies the existence of material bodies, and teaches that we have no rational grounds to believe in the reality of anything but ideas and their relations. [1913 Webster] 4. The practice or habit of giving or attributing ideal form or character to things; treatment of things in art or literature according to ideal standards or patterns; -- opposed to {realism}. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] 5. a belief in the feasibility of the implementation of ideal principles and noble goals, and the practice or habit of pursuing such goals; -- opposed to {realism} and {cynicism}. [PJC]

Naturalism

Naturalism (philosophy) is any of several philosophical stances wherein all phenomena or hypotheses, commonly labeled as supernatural, are either false or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses.

naturalism n 1: (philosophy) the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations 2: an artistic movement in 19th century France; artists and writers strove for detailed realistic and factual description [syn: {realism}]

70 Moby Thesaurus words for "naturalism": Marxism, absolute realism, animalism, artlessness, atomism, authenticity, behaviorism, bona fideness, commonsense realism, dialectical materialism, earthliness, empiricism, epiphenomenalism, genuineness, health, historical materialism, honesty, hylomorphism, hylotheism, hylozoism, inartificiality, legitimacy, lifelikeness, literalism, literality, literalness, materialism, mechanism, natural realism, naturalness, nature, naturism, new realism, normalcy, normality, normalness, order, photographic realism, physicalism, physicism, positive philosophy, positivism, pragmaticism, pragmatism, propriety, realism, realness, regularity, representative realism, secularism, sincerity, substantialism, temporality, true-to-lifeness, truth to nature, unadulteration, unaffectation, unaffectedness, unartificialness, unassumingness, undisguise, unfictitiousness, unpretentiousness, unspeciousness, unspoiledness, unspuriousness, unsyntheticness, verisimilitude, wholesomeness, worldliness

Naturalism \Nat"u*ral*ism\, n. [Cf. F. naturalisme.] 1. A state of nature; conformity to nature. [1913 Webster] 2. (Metaph.) The doctrine of those who deny a supernatural agency in the miracles and revelations recorded in the Bible, and in spiritual influences; also, any system of philosophy which refers the phenomena of nature to a blind force or forces acting necessarily or according to fixed laws, excluding origination or direction by one intelligent will. [1913 Webster] 3. The theory that art or literature should conform to nature; realism; also, the quality, rendering, or expression of art or literature executed according to this theory. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] 4. Specifically: The principles and characteristics professed or represented by a 19th-century school of realistic writers, notably by Zola and Maupassant, who aimed to give a literal transcription of reality, and laid special stress on the analytic study of character, and on the scientific and experimental nature of their observation of life. [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

Data Sources:

  • idealism: WordNet (r) 2.0
  • idealism: Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0
  • idealism: The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.44
  • idealism: The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.44
  • naturalism: WordNet (r) 2.0
  • naturalism: Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0
  • naturalism: The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.44

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