Deduction and Induction

Deduction

Deduction may refer to:

deduction n 1: a reduction in the gross amount on which a tax is calculated; reduces taxes by the percentage fixed for the taxpayer's income bracket [syn: {tax write-off}, {tax deduction}] 2: an amount or percentage deducted [syn: {discount}] 3: something that is inferred (deduced or entailed or implied); "his resignation had political implications" [syn: {entailment}, {implication}] 4: reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect) [syn: {deductive reasoning}, {synthesis}] 5: the act of subtracting (removing a part from the whole); "he complained about the subtraction of money from their paychecks" [syn: {subtraction}] [ant: {addition}] 6: the act of reducing the selling price of merchandise [syn: {discount}, {price reduction}]

175 Moby Thesaurus words for "deduction": Baconian method, a fortiori reasoning, a posteriori reasoning, a priori reasoning, abatement, ablation, abrasion, abridgment, abstraction, accord, addition, adjunct, affairs, affiliation, affinity, agio, alleviation, alliance, allowance, analysis, approximation, assemblage, association, attenuation, bank discount, bond, breakage, cash discount, chain discount, charge-off, closeness, cogitation, combination, concession, conclusion, connectedness, connection, consequence, consequent, consideration, contemplation, contiguity, contraction, contrariety, corollary, credit, cut, dampening, damping, dealings, decrease, decrement, decrescence, deductive reasoning, deflation, deliberation, demonstration, depreciation, depression, derivation, diminishment, diminution, discount, discourse, discourse of reason, discursive reason, disjunction, dockage, drawback, dying, dying off, epagoge, erosion, extenuation, fade-out, filiation, finding, generalization, homology, hypothesis and verification, illation, induction, inductive reasoning, inference, intercourse, intimacy, judgment, junction, kickback, languishment, lessening, letup, liaison, link, linkage, linking, logical thought, lowering, meditation, miniaturization, minus, mitigation, musing, mutual attraction, nearness, particularization, penalty, penalty clause, percentage, philosophical induction, philosophy, pondering, premium, price reduction, price-cut, proof, propinquity, proximity, purification, rapport, ratiocination, rationalism, rationality, rationalization, rationalizing, reason, reasonableness, reasoning, rebate, rebatement, reduction, refinement, reflection, refund, relatedness, relation, relations, relationship, relaxation, removal, result, rollback, rumination, sagging, salvage, scaling down, sequitur, setoff, similarity, simplicity, sophistry, specious reasoning, speculation, subduction, sublation, subtraction, sweet reason, syllogism, syllogistic reasoning, sympathy, synthesis, takeoff, taking away, tare, thinking, tie, tie-in, time discount, trade discount, tret, underselling, union, weakening, withdrawal, write-off

Deduction \De*duc"tion\, n. [L. deductio: cf. F. d['e]duction.] 1. Act or process of deducing or inferring. [1913 Webster] The deduction of one language from another. --Johnson. [1913 Webster] This process, by which from two statements we deduce a third, is called deduction. --J. R. Seely. [1913 Webster] 2. Act of deducting or taking away; subtraction; as, the deduction of the subtrahend from the minuend. [1913 Webster] 3. That which is deduced or drawn from premises by a process of reasoning; an inference; a conclusion. [1913 Webster] Make fair deductions; see to what they mount. --Pope. [1913 Webster] 4. That which is or may be deducted; the part taken away; abatement; as, a deduction from the yearly rent in compensation for services; deductions from income in calculating income taxes. Syn: See {Induction}. [1913 Webster]

Induction

Induction may refer to:

induction n 1: a formal entry into an organization or position or office; "his initiation into the club"; "he was ordered to report for induction into the army"; "he gave a speech as part of his installation into the hall of fame" [syn: {initiation}, {installation}] 2: an electrical phenomenon whereby an electromotive force (EMF) is generated in a closed circuit by a change in the flow of current 3: reasoning from detailed facts to general principles [syn: {generalization}, {generalisation}, {inductive reasoning}] 4: the process whereby changes in the current flow in a circuit produce magnetism or an EMF 5: stimulation that calls up (draws forth) a particular class of behaviors; "the elicitation of his testimony was not easy" [syn: {evocation}, {elicitation}] 6: (physics) a property of an electric circuit by which an electromotive force is induced in it by a variation of current [syn: {inductance}] 7: the act of bringing about something (especially at an early time); "the induction of an anesthetic state" 8: an act that sets in motion some course of events [syn: {trigger}, {initiation}]

131 Moby Thesaurus words for "induction": Baconian method, a fortiori reasoning, a posteriori reasoning, a priori reasoning, accedence, acceptance, accession, admission, admittance, alphabet, analysis, apostolic orders, appointment, baptism, basics, call, call-up, calling, canonization, coming out, compulsory military service, conclusion, conferment, conscription, consecration, consequence, consequent, corollary, coronation, curtain raiser, debut, deduction, deductive reasoning, demonstration, derivation, discourse, discourse of reason, discursive reason, draft, draft call, drafting, election, electromagnetic induction, electrostatic induction, elements, embarkation, embarkment, enlistment, enrollment, enthronement, epagoge, first appearance, first principles, first steps, floating, flotation, generalization, grammar, henry, holy orders, hornbook, hypothesis and verification, illation, immission, impressment, inaugural, inaugural address, inauguration, inductance, inductive reasoning, inductivity, inference, initiation, installation, installment, instatement, institution, introduction, intromission, investiture, launching, levy, logical thought, magnetic induction, maiden speech, major orders, minor orders, mobilization, muster, mutual induction, nomination, opener, ordainment, orders, ordination, outlines, particularization, philosophical induction, philosophy, placement, preferment, preliminary, presentation, press, primer, principia, principles, proof, ratiocination, rationalism, rationality, rationalization, rationalizing, reading in, reason, reasonableness, reasoning, recruiting, recruitment, rudiments, selective service, self-induction, sophistry, specious reasoning, summons, sweet reason, syllogism, syllogistic reasoning, synthesis, taking office, unveiling

Magnetic \Mag*net"ic\, Magnetical \Mag*net"ic*al\, a. [L. magneticus: cf. F. magn['e]tique.] 1. Pertaining to the magnet; possessing the properties of the magnet, or corresponding properties; as, a magnetic bar of iron; a magnetic needle. [1913 Webster] 2. Of or pertaining to, or characterized by, the earth's magnetism; as, the magnetic north; the magnetic meridian. [1913 Webster] 3. Capable of becoming a magnet; susceptible to magnetism; as, the magnetic metals. [1913 Webster] 4. Endowed with extraordinary personal power to excite the feelings and to win the affections; attractive; inducing attachment. [1913 Webster] She that had all magnetic force alone. --Donne. [1913 Webster] 5. Having, susceptible to, or induced by, animal magnetism, so called; hypnotic; as, a magnetic sleep. See {Magnetism}. [Archaic] [1913 Webster +PJC] {Magnetic amplitude}, {attraction}, {dip}, {induction}, etc. See under {Amplitude}, {Attraction}, etc. {Magnetic battery}, a combination of bar or horseshoe magnets with the like poles adjacent, so as to act together with great power. {Magnetic compensator}, a contrivance connected with a ship's compass for compensating or neutralizing the effect of the iron of the ship upon the needle. {Magnetic curves}, curves indicating lines of magnetic force, as in the arrangement of iron filings between the poles of a powerful magnet. {Magnetic elements}. (a) (Chem. Physics) Those elements, as iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, etc., which are capable or becoming magnetic. (b) (Physics) In respect to terrestrial magnetism, the declination, inclination, and intensity. (c) See under {Element}. {Magnetic fluid}, the hypothetical fluid whose existence was formerly assumed in the explanations of the phenomena of magnetism; -- no longer considered a meaningful concept. {Magnetic iron}, or {Magnetic iron ore}. (Min.) Same as {Magnetite}. {Magnetic needle}, a slender bar of steel, magnetized and suspended at its center on a sharp-pointed pivot, or by a delicate fiber, so that it may take freely the direction of the magnetic meridian. It constitutes the essential part of a compass, such as the mariner's and the surveyor's. {Magnetic poles}, the two points in the opposite polar regions of the earth at which the direction of the dipping needle is vertical. {Magnetic pyrites}. See {Pyrrhotite}. {Magnetic storm} (Terrestrial Physics), a disturbance of the earth's magnetic force characterized by great and sudden changes. {Magnetic telegraph}, a telegraph acting by means of a magnet. See {Telegraph}. [1913 Webster]

Induction \In*duc"tion\, n. [L. inductio: cf. F. induction. See {Induct}.] [1913 Webster] 1. The act or process of inducting or bringing in; introduction; entrance; beginning; commencement. [1913 Webster] I know not you; nor am I well pleased to make this time, as the affair now stands, the induction of your acquaintance. --Beau. & Fl. [1913 Webster] These promises are fair, the parties sure, And our induction dull of prosperous hope. --Shak. [1913 Webster] 2. An introduction or introductory scene, as to a play; a preface; a prologue. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] This is but an induction: I will draw The curtains of the tragedy hereafter. --Massinger. [1913 Webster] 3. (Philos.) The act or process of reasoning from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal; also, the result or inference so reached. [1913 Webster] Induction is an inference drawn from all the particulars. --Sir W. Hamilton. [1913 Webster] Induction is the process by which we conclude that what is true of certain individuals of a class, is true of the whole class, or that what is true at certain times will be true in similar circumstances at all times. --J. S. Mill. [1913 Webster] 4. The introduction of a clergyman into a benefice, or of an official into a office, with appropriate acts or ceremonies; the giving actual possession of an ecclesiastical living or its temporalities. [1913 Webster] 5. (Math.) A process of demonstration in which a general truth is gathered from an examination of particular cases, one of which is known to be true, the examination being so conducted that each case is made to depend on the preceding one; -- called also {successive induction}. [1913 Webster] 6. (Physics) The property by which one body, having electrical or magnetic polarity, causes or induces it in another body without direct contact; an impress of electrical or magnetic force or condition from one body on another without actual contact. [1913 Webster] {Electro-dynamic induction}, the action by which a variable or interrupted current of electricity excites another current in a neighboring conductor forming a closed circuit. {Electro-magnetic induction}, the influence by which an electric current produces magnetic polarity in certain bodies near or around which it passes. {Electro-static induction}, the action by which a body possessing a charge of statical electricity develops a charge of statical electricity of the opposite character in a neighboring body. {Induction coil}, an apparatus producing induced currents of great intensity. It consists of a coil or helix of stout insulated copper wire, surrounded by another coil of very fine insulated wire, in which a momentary current is induced, when a current (as from a voltaic battery), passing through the inner coil, is made, broken, or varied. The inner coil has within it a core of soft iron, and is connected at its terminals with a condenser; -- called also {inductorium}, and {Ruhmkorff's coil}. {Induction pipe}, {Induction port}, or {Induction valve}, a pipe, passageway, or valve, for leading or admitting a fluid to a receiver, as steam to an engine cylinder, or water to a pump. {Magnetic induction}, the action by which magnetic polarity is developed in a body susceptible to magnetic effects when brought under the influence of a magnet. {Magneto-electric induction}, the influence by which a magnet excites electric currents in closed circuits. [1913 Webster] {Logical induction}, (Philos.), an act or method of reasoning from all the parts separately to the whole which they constitute, or into which they may be united collectively; the operation of discovering and proving general propositions; the scientific method. {Philosophical induction}, the inference, or the act of inferring, that what has been observed or established in respect to a part, individual, or species, may, on the ground of analogy, be affirmed or received of the whole to which it belongs. This last is the inductive method of Bacon. It ascends from the parts to the whole, and forms, from the general analogy of nature, or special presumptions in the case, conclusions which have greater or less degrees of force, and which may be strengthened or weakened by subsequent experience and experiment. It relates to actual existences, as in physical science or the concerns of life. Logical induction is founded on the necessary laws of thought; philosophical induction, on the interpretation of the indications or analogy of nature. [1913 Webster] Syn: Deduction. Usage: {Induction}, {Deduction}. In induction we observe a sufficient number of individual facts, and, on the ground of analogy, extend what is true of them to others of the same class, thus arriving at general principles or laws. This is the kind of reasoning in physical science. In deduction we begin with a general truth, which is already proven or provisionally assumed, and seek to connect it with some particular case by means of a middle term, or class of objects, known to be equally connected with both. Thus, we bring down the general into the particular, affirming of the latter the distinctive qualities of the former. This is the syllogistic method. By induction Franklin established the identity of lightning and electricity; by deduction he inferred that dwellings might be protected by lightning rods. [1913 Webster]

induction A method of proving statements about {well-ordered sets}. If S is a well-ordered set with ordering "<", and we want to show that a property P holds for every element of S, it is sufficient to show that, for all s in S, IF for all t in S, t < s => P(t) THEN P(s) I.e. if P holds for anything less than s then it holds for s. In this case we say P is proved by induction. The most common instance of proof by induction is induction over the {natural numbers} where we prove that some property holds for n=0 and that if it holds for n, it holds for n+1. (In fact it is sufficient for "<" to be a {well-founded} {partial order} on S, not necessarily a well-ordering of S.) (1999-12-09)

Data Sources:

  • deduction: WordNet (r) 2.0
  • deduction: Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0
  • deduction: The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.44
  • induction: WordNet (r) 2.0
  • induction: Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0
  • induction: The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.44
  • induction: The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.44
  • induction: The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (27 SEP 03)

Currently unrated



Your Comparisons - Deduction And Induction